Curriculum vitae

James Popple

ADDRESS:   PO Box 5098
GARRAN  ACT  2605
AUSTRALIA
E-MAIL:   james@popple.net 
HOME PAGE:   http://www.popple.net/james 
DATE OF BIRTH:   4 November 1964
PLACE OF BIRTH:   Mirboo North, Victoria, Australia
NATIONALITY:   Australian

Employment

SINCE 2018   Official Secretary, Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety
Chief Executive Officer of the Royal Commission; support for the Royal Commissioners in their inquiry; strategic oversight, policy development and operations.

SINCE 2018   Member, ACT Remuneration Tribunal
Inquiry into, and determination of, the remuneration, allowances and other entitlements to be granted to particular offices in the Australian Capital Territory, under the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1995 (ACT).

SINCE 2018   Member, Anti-Dumping Review Panel
Independent review of certain decisions made by the Minister for Jobs and Innovation (or her Assistant Minister) or by the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission in relation to anti-dumping and countervailing investigations.

SINCE 2013   Honorary Professor, College of Law and College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra

2018Principal Reviewer, CPM Reviews Pty Ltd
Independent review of workplace behaviour, administrative actions and employment decisions for the public sector and private sector organisations.

2015–17   Senior Member, Administrative Appeals Tribunal, Canberra
Merits review, under the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975, of decisions made by Commonwealth ministers, departments and agencies under various Acts.

2010–14   Freedom of Information Commissioner, Office of the Australian Information Commissioner, Canberra
Merits review of FOI decisions made by Commonwealth ministers, departments and agencies; monitoring, investigating and reporting on compliance with the Freedom of Information Act 1982; assisting departments and agencies to publish information in accordance with the information publication scheme under the Act; and promoting awareness and understanding of the Act and its objects. Appointed under the Australian Information Commissioner Act 2010 to exercise the "freedom of information functions", which are about giving the Australian community access to information held by the Commonwealth Government in accordance with the FOI Act and other Acts.

2009–12   Adjunct Lecturer, Research School of Computer Science, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra
Non-stipendiary; occasional research in computer science and law.

2009–10   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Civil Law Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Legal and policy advice on Australian Government legal services, bankruptcy and personal insolvency, copyright, classification and international legal services; classification operations; reform of Australian personal property securities law and regulation of the national legal profession; support for the Attorney-General in the performance of his First Law Officer role; administration of the Copyright Act 1968, the Circuit Layouts Act 1989, the Electronic Transactions Act 1999, the Legal Services Directions 2005 and Part 3 of the Parliamentary Entitlements Regulations 1997.

2008–09   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Legal Services and Personal Property Securities Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Reform of Australian personal property securities law; support for the Attorney-General in the performance of his First Law Officer role; legal and policy advice on Australian Government litigation, bankruptcy and personal insolvency; administration of the Legal Services Directions 2005 and Part 3 of the Parliamentary Entitlements Regulations 1997.

1995–2009   Visiting Fellow, Research School of Computer Science (in 1995, the Department of Computer Science), College of Engineering and Computer Science (in 1995, the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology), Australian National University, Canberra
Non-stipendiary; occasional research in computer science and law.

2007–08   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Personal Property Securities Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Reform of Australian personal property securities law.

2007   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Personal Property Securities Taskforce / Legal Services Coordination, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Reform of Australian personal property securities law; support for the Attorney-General in the performance of his First Law Officer role; legal and policy advice on Australian Government litigation, bankruptcy and personal insolvency, and international legal services; administration of the Legal Services Directions 2005 and Part 3 of the Parliamentary Entitlements Regulations 1997.

2004–06   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Indigenous Justice and Legal Assistance Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Development, implementation and administration of Australian Government policy on legal aid, including management of the Legal Aid Commission program and the Community Legal Services program; administration of schemes for the provision of law and justice programs to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; provision of legal or financial assistance in matters arising under a number of statutory and non-statutory schemes.

2004   First Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 2), Indigenous Law and Justice Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Administration of schemes for the provision of law and justice programs to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

2004   Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 1), Administrative Law and Civil Procedure Branch, Civil Justice Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Legal and policy advice on the federal administrative law system; appointments to tribunals; civil procedure and evidence; international civil procedure.

2003   Assistant Secretary (Senior Executive Band 1), Legal Assistance Branch, Family Law and Legal Assistance Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Administration of 25 schemes for legal or financial assistance.

2001–03   Executive Adviser (Senior Executive Band 1), Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Legal and policy advice to the Secretary, and to Ministers and departmental officers; liaison with other agencies; project work; coordination within the Department and with other agencies.

1999–2001   Director (Principal Legal Officer), Tribunal Reform Section, Administrative and Procedural Justice Branch, Civil Justice Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Development of legislation to establish an Administrative Review Tribunal; legal and policy advice, especially in relation to reform of the federal merits review system.

1997–2000   Staff Tutor, Burgmann College, Australian National University, Canberra
After-hours; responsible for the College's tutorial system, and academic matters in general; assistant to the College Principal.

1998–99   Senior Legal Officer, Privacy Section, Information Law Branch, Information and Security Law Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Legal and policy advice, especially on the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) and other legislation raising information privacy issues.

1998   Government Lawyer, Federal Jurisdiction Section, Civil Justice Branch, Civil Law Division, Australian Attorney-General's Department, Canberra
Legal and policy advice, especially in relation to Commonwealth courts and tribunals.

1996–98   Deputy Registrar, High Court of Australia, Canberra
Organizational support of the High Court in the discharge of its functions; responsible for the administration of matters filed in the Canberra, Brisbane, Darwin and Perth offices of the Registry.

1995   Associate to Justice Mary Gaudron, High Court of Australia, Canberra
Legal research for Justice Gaudron.

1994   [Travelling in Europe]

1993   Associate Lecturer (Academic Level A), Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra
Course coordinator and tutor for units in discrete mathematics and information systems.

1987–91   Tutor, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra
Part-time; preparation and presentation of tutorials for first-year computer science units.

1989   College Officer, Burgmann College, Australian National University, Canberra
After-hours administration, especially of conferences.

1989   Programmer, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra
UNIX system administration and application development.

1987–88   Programmer, Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd, Australian Software Operation, Melbourne
UNIX application development during university vacation.

1985–87   Clerical officer, Stamp Duties Office, Melbourne
Legal clerical work; 2–4 months each year during university vacations; now part of the State Revenue Office Victoria.

Education

Australian National University, Canberra

1989‑93   Doctor of Philosophy (Computer Science and Law)
Thesis: "SHYSTER: A Pragmatic Legal Expert System".
Abstract: Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. This thesis argues that a complex model is unnecessary. It advocates a simpler, pragmatic approach in which the utility of a legal expert system is evaluated by reference, not to the extent to which it simulates a lawyer's approach to a legal problem, but to the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. The thesis describes the development of a legal expert system, called SHYSTER, which takes a pragmatic approach to case law. It discusses the testing of SHYSTER in four different and disparate areas of case law, and draws conclusions about the advantages and limitations of this approach to legal expert system development.

1984–88   Bachelor of Laws

1983–87   Bachelor of Arts (Honours)
Units in computer science, English, history and mathematics.
Thesis: "Incremental Compilation and its Implementation in the PECAN Programming Environment Generator".


1980–83   Canberra School of Music, Canberra
Part-time studies in electronic music.

1981–82   Phillip College, Canberra
Now the Woden campus of the Canberra College.

1977–80   Melrose High School, Canberra

1970–76   Torrens Primary School, Canberra

Other activities

Burgmann College, Australian National University

SINCE 1985   Councillor
1990–93 and 2003–05   Secretary of Council
1997–2000   Staff Tutor
1989   College Officer
1986–87   Tutor
1986/87   President, Residents' Association

Postgraduate and Research Students' Association, Australian National University

SINCE 1991   Honorary Life Member
1990/91   President
1989–92   Postgraduate Representative Council, member

Australian National University

1991–92   Sports Union Council, Postgraduate student representative
1990/91   Council, Postgraduate student representative
1987/88   Council, Undergraduate student representative
1987/88   Student Representative Council, General representative

Miscellaneous

2012–14   Telopea Park School Board, chair
2007   Australia and New Zealand School of Government Executive Fellows Program for Senior Public Sector Executives, participant
2006–07   Taxation Test Case Funding Review Panel, member
2001–05   Australian Attorney-General's Department, member audit committee
SINCE 1986   National Gallery of Australia Association, member
SINCE 1987   Amnesty International Australia, member
SINCE 1990   Australian National University Union, life member
SINCE 1992   High Court of Australia, barrister
SINCE 1992   Supreme Court of NSW, barrister
SINCE 1992   Supreme Court of the ACT, barrister and solicitor
SINCE 1993   Supreme Court of Victoria, barrister and solicitor
SINCE 1996   Journal of Law, Information and Science (ISSN 0729-1485), member editorial board
SINCE 2013   Centre for Freedom of Information, member advisory board

Scholarships and awards

2001   Australia Day Achievement Medallion
Awarded by the Australia Day Council, on the recommendation of the Secretary of the Attorney-General's Department, for significant contribution in advising the Attorney-General on administrative review system reform.

1990‑93   Australian National University PhD Scholarship
1991   Telecom Student Innovator Award
1990   Sigma Data Postgraduate Research Award

Selected publications

2014
2012
2011
2008
2007
2003
2001
1999
1998
1996
1993
1992
  • SHYSTER and the Calculation of Distance between Cases, Technical Report TR-CS-92-05, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra, April, 10 pp.
  • SHYSTER and the Authorization of Copyright Infringement, Technical Report TR-CS-92-08, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra, May, 25 pp.
1991
  • "Legal expert systems: The inadequacy of a rule-based approach", The Australian Computer Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, February, pp. 11–16, ISSN 0004-8917. http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~James.Popple/publications/articles/rule-based/acj.pdf
  • Editor (with Marc Wilkins), The Orientation Handbook for Postgraduate Students, Australian National University Postgraduate and Research Students' Association, Canberra, 74 pp.
  • Detecting Attribute Dependence in the SHYSTER Legal Expert System, Technical Report TR-CS-91-04, Department of Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra, 8 pp.
1990
  • "Legal expert systems: The inadequacy of a rule-based approach", in Advances in Computing and Information: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing and Information (ICCI-90), eds Selim G. Akl, Frank Fiala and Waldemar W. Koczkodaj, Niagara Falls, Canada, 23–26 May, Canadian Scholars' Press, Toronto, pp. 348–51, ISBN 0 921627 70 X. http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~James.Popple/publications/papers/icci-90/icci-90.pdf
  • "Legal expert systems: The inadequacy of a rule-based approach", in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Australian Computer Science Conference (ACSC-13), Monash University, Melbourne, 7–9 February, Australian Computer Science Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 303–13, ISSN 0157-3055. http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~James.Popple/publications/papers/acsc13/acsc13.pdf
1989
1987

Decisions under Part IV of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975

Warner and Comcare (2017) 159 ALD 162; [2017] AATA 2709; Berwick and Secretary, Department of Education and Training [2017] AATA 2428; Howard and Comcare [2017] AATA 2381; Spence and Comcare [2017] AATA 2161; RVQZ and Comcare [2017] AATA 1904; Logan Jones and Comcare [2017] AATA 1736; Pharaoh and Comcare [2017] AATA 1556; Adam and Comcare [2017] AATA 1507; Icehot Pty Ltd and Commissioner of Taxation [2017] AATA 1505; Leota and Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] AATA 1365; Rooney and Comcare [2017] AATA 1133; Australian Fisheries Management Authority and Whish-Wilson [2017] AATA 1098; Secretary, Department of Employment and Besser (2017) 166 ALD 343; [2017] AATA 835; HSDR and Comcare (2017) 161 ALD 499; [2017] AATA 779; Chin and Comcare (2017) 160 ALD 176; [2017] AATA 634; Fitzgibbon and Prime Minister of Australia (2017) 165 ALD 358; [2017] AATA 502; Australian Fisheries Management Authority and Whish-Wilson (2017) 165 ALD 344; [2017] AATA 375; Lockwood and Comcare [2017] AATA 159; Duncan and Secretary, Department of Human Services [2017] AATA 52; Kael and Commissioner of Taxation (2017) 104 ATR 937; 2017 ATC ¶10-444; [2017] AATA 38; Haskins and Comcare [2017] AATA 8.

Parton and Comcare [2016] AATA 1076; LTLL and Comcare [2016] AATA 913; D'Ambrosio and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2016] AATA 828; Atkinson and Comcare [2016] AATA 804; St Mary Health & Community Services Pty Ltd and Australian Community Pharmacy Authority (2016) 70 AAR 206; [2016] AATA 673; Haywood and Comcare [2016] AATA 667; Smith and Australian Federal Police [2016] AATA 531; Secretary, Department of Social Services and Dockerty [2016] AATA 477; Sedaitis and Comcare [2016] AATA 465; Howes and Comcare [2016] AATA 448; O'Kane and Comcare [2016] AATA 389; Leigh and Australian Federal Police (2016) 153 ALD 546; (2016) 69 AAR 312; [2016] AATA 330; Jones and Australian Federal Police (2016) 153 ALD 535; [2016] AATA 329; Duncan and Secretary, Department of Human Services (2016) 151 ALD 577; [2016] AATA 152; Ware and Comcare (2016) 68 AAR 449; [2016] AATA 146.

Whitby and Secretary, Department of Health [2015] AATA 1026; Carroll and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 982; Wuth and Comcare [2015] AATA 947; Duley and Secretary, Department of Human Services [2015] AATA 816; Garrett and Comcare (2015) 151 ALD 372; [2015] AATA 801; Nozohoor Mehrabad and Secretary, Department of Immigration and Border Protection (2015) 67 AAR 423; [2015] AATA 790; RLDZ and Comcare [2015] AATA 735; Beale and Repatriation Commission [2015] AATA 725; Cmunt and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 674; Kennedy and Comcare (2015) 67 AAR 134; [2015] AATA 643; QHBN and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 614; Tisdell and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 582; Estate of Kozak and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 480; XGYV and Commissioner of Taxation (2015) 101 ATR 718; [2015] AATA 478; Novosel and Comcare (2015) 66 AAR 549; [2015] AATA 476; Power and Comcare [2015] AATA 471; Rovere and Secretary, Department of Education and Training [2015] AATA 462; Khorramdel and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 383; BDPD and Child Support Registrar [2015] AATA 376; Goodricke and Comcare [2015] AATA 323; Munday and Comcare [2015] AATA 314; Stanton and Comcare [2015] AATA 297; Lamb and Secretary, Department of Social Services [2015] AATA 290; Farrell and Comcare [2015] AATA 268; McDonald and Commonwealth Superannuation Corporation [2015] AATA 237; Lim and Comcare [2015] AATA 189; Hartas and Telstra Corporation Ltd [2015] AATA 147; Ward and Commissioner of Taxation (2015) 148 ALD 599; (2015) 65 AAR 305; (2015) 101 ATR 151; 2015 ATC ¶10-385; 15 ESL 05; [2015] AATA 138; Munday and Comcare [2015] AATA 123; Pemberton and Director-General, National Archives of Australia (2015) 65 AAR 219; [2015] AATA 115; Iyengar and Commissioner of Taxation (2015) 100 ATR 940; [2015] AATA 80.

Decisions under Part VII of the Freedom of Information Act 1982

Wood and Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet [2014] AICmr 150; 'EE' and Department of Immigration and Border Protection [2014] AICmr 145; 'ED' and Department of Veterans' Affairs [2014] AICmr 143; 'EB' and Department of Finance [2014] AICmr 139; 'EA' and Department of Finance [2014] AICmr 138; Wellard Rural Exports Pty Ltd and Department of Agriculture [2014] AICmr 131; 'DN' and Department of Agriculture [2014] AICmr 123; 'DI' and Department of Agriculture [2014] AICmr 116; Farrell and Department of Immigration and Border Protection [2014] AICmr 74; Mentink and Australian Federal Police [2014] AICmr 67; Sanderson and Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development [2014] AICmr 66; Mentink and Australian Federal Police [2014] AICmr 64; 'CB' and Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority [2014] AICmr 63; 'BZ' and Department of Immigration and Border Protection [2014] AICmr 55; Mills and Department of Immigration and Border Protection [2014] AICmr 54; 'BY' and High Court of Australia [2014] AICmr 51; 'BX' and Commonwealth Ombudsman [2014] AICmr 47; 'BW' and Commonwealth Ombudsman [2014] AICmr 46; Mentink and Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [2014] AICmr 38; 'BP' and Australian Customs and Border Protection Service [2014] AICmr 36; Maritime Union of Australia and Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development [2014] AICmr 35; Bartlett and Department of Human Services [2014] AICmr 33; Philip Morris Ltd and IP Australia [2014] AICmr 28; Philip Morris Ltd and Department of Finance [2014] AICmr 27; Rimes and Airservices Australia [2014] AICmr 25; Stanistreet and Therapeutic Goods Administration [2014] AICmr 21; Thomas and Prime Minister [2014] AICmr 18; Fist and Australian Broadcasting Corporation [2014] AICmr 14; Australian Private Hospitals Association and Department of the Treasury [2014] AICmr 4; 'AW' and Australian Taxation Office [2014] AICmr 1.

'AV' and Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [2013] AICmr 91; Philip Morris Ltd and Treasurer [2013] AICmr 88; National Australia Bank Ltd and Australian Competition and Consumer Commission [2013] AICmr 84; 'AR' and Australian Federal Police [2013] AICmr 80; 'AP' and Department of Human Services [2013] AICmr 78; Kemp and Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [2013] AICmr 75; Combined Pensioners and Superannuants Association of NSW Inc and Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer [2013] AICmr 70; Sweeney and Australian Securities and Investments Commission [2013] AICmr 68; Sweeney and Australian Prudential Regulation Authority [2013] AICmr 67; Hunt and Australian Federal Police [2013] AICmr 66; Besser and Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs [2013] AICmr 65; Battersby and NBN Co Ltd [2013] AICmr 61; Real Health Care Reform Pty Ltd and Department of Health and Ageing [2013] AICmr 60; 'AH' and Australian Federal Police [2013] AICmr 59; NHS Australia Pty Ltd and Fair Work Ombudsman [2013] AICmr 58; Diamond and Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [2013] AICmr 57; Rudd and Civil Aviation Safety Authority [2013] AICmr 56; Commonwealth Ombudsman and 'S' [2013] AICmr 31; Australian Broadcasting Corporation and Australian Sports Commission [2013] AICmr 28; 'M' and Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry [2013] AICmr 24; 'J' and Department of Health and Ageing [2013] AICmr 21; 'A' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2013] AICmr 7; 'Z' and Department of Defence [2013] AICmr 6; Dorling and Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism [2013] AICmr 5; 'Y' and Airservices Australia [2013] AICmr 4; 'X' and Australian Research Council [2013] AICmr 3; 'V' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2013] AICmr 1.

'U' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 36; 'T' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 35; 'P' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 29; 'O' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 27; 'N' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 26; Doney and Department of Finance and Deregulation [2012] AICmr 25; McBeth and Australian Agency for International Development [2012] AICmr 24; 'M' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 23; Briggs and Department of the Treasury (No. 3) [2012] AICmr 22; 'L' and Australian Human Rights Commission [2012] AICmr 21; 'K' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2012] AICmr 20; British American Tobacco Australia Ltd and Australian Competition and Consumer Commission [2012] AICmr 19; Briggs and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy (No. 2) [2012] AICmr 18; Briggs and Department of the Treasury (No. 2) [2012] AICmr 17; 'J' and Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education [2012] AICmr 16; Fletcher and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy (No. 3) [2012] AICmr 15; Fletcher and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy (No. 2) [2012] AICmr 14; Besser and Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education [2012] AICmr 13; Australian Broadcasting Corporation and Commonwealth Ombudsman [2012] AICmr 11; 'H' and Australian Broadcasting Corporation [2012] AICmr 10; 'G' and Australian Taxation Office [2012] AICmr 9; 'F' and Australian Broadcasting Corporation [2012] AICmr 8; Herald and Weekly Times Pty Ltd and Australian Broadcasting Corporation [2012] AICmr 7; Briggs and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy [2012] AICmr 6; Briggs and Department of the Treasury [2012] AICmr 5; Internode Pty Ltd and NBN Co Ltd [2012] AICmr 4; 'E' and National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority [2012] AICmr 3; Smith and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy [2012] AICmr 2; Fletcher and Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy [2012] AICmr 1.

Washington and Australian Prudential Regulation Authority [2011] AICmr 11; Baljurda Comprehensive Consulting Pty Ltd and the Australian Agency for International Development [2011] AICmr 8; 'C' and Department of Immigration and Citizenship [2011] AICmr 7; 'B' and Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General [2011] AICmr 6; Carver and Fair Work Ombudsman [2011] AICmr 5; 'A' and Department of Health and Ageing [2011] AICmr 4; Parnell and Minister for Infrastructure and Transport [2011] AICmr 3; Besser and Department of Infrastructure and Transport [2011] AICmr 2; Crowe and NBN Co Ltd [2011] AICmr 1.

Cases reported

Rundell v. Bedford (1998) 144 FLR 443; Mandarin International Developments Pty Ltd v. Growthcorp (Australia) Pty Ltd (1998) 143 FLR 408; Australian Municipal, Administrative, Clerical and Services Union v. Treasurer of the Commonwealth (1998) 82 FCR 175; Olympic Amusements Pty Ltd v. Milwell Pty Ltd (1998) 81 FCR 403; Farrell v. R (1998) 155 ALR 652; Risk v. Williamson (1998) 155 ALR 393; Dolvelle Pty Ltd v. Australian Macfarms Pty Ltd (1998) 155 ALR 151; Bialkower v. Acohs Pty Ltd (1998) 154 ALR 534.
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