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Example - Vending Machine Controller

The state diagram and next state/output table for the vending machine controller were given earlier in Section 4.4.

A common, simple, though not minimal binary coding of states is called one hot, where one flip flip is used for each state. One hot coding   is suitable for the FPGA architecture, which is rich in flip-flops. (You may have noticed the one hot option in the Xilinx compilation options). In this example we have six states, and with one hot coding we use six flip flops (a minimal binary coding would require three flip flops).

  Using state variables ABCDEF the one hot coding is as follows:

state ABCDEF
s0 000001
s1 000010
s2 000100
s3 001000
s4 010000
s5 100000

We use a similar coding for the inputs and outputs, (although there are many valid possibilities) with the followng abbreviations:

input abbreviation output abbreviation
coin CN release-candy RC
return RTN return-change RCH
sum<75 SM0 return-all-coins RAC
sum=75 SM1    
sum>75 SM2    
change-available CA    
So, e.g., release-candyis ACTIVE when RC=1, and inactive when RC=0.

With this coding, the next state/output tables read:

Present next next next
state state state state
000001 000001 if CN=0 000010 if CN=1 100000 if CN=0
  and RTN=0 and RTN=0 and RTN=1
000010 000001 if SM0=1 000100 if SM1=1 001000 if SM2=1
000100 000001 - -
001000 010000 if CA=1 100000 if CA=0 -
010000 000100 - -
100000 000001 - -
Note: We assume that the input signals SM0, SM1, SM2 are mutually exclusive, and one of them is active at any time (the vending machine hardware supplying these signals determines this).

Present state RC RCH RAC
ABCDEF 0 0 0
000001 0 0 0
000010 0 0 0
000100 1 0 0
001000 0 0 0
010000 0 0 1
100000 0 1 0

The state diagram can also be re-drawn as in Figure 71. This may help you see what the coding means (do this yourself for the up/down/stop counter).

Figure 71: Vending machine controller state diagram - one hot binary coding.

As we can see, each state is associated with exactly one flip flop. The vending machine circuit diagram is shown in Figure 72.

Figure 72: Vending machine controller circuit diagram.

We again use rising edge triggered D flip flops as shown, with asynchronous preset and preclear. Activation of the RESET signal will force the state machine into state s0=000001. Then it is quite straightforward to obtain the next state logic:

D_A & = F. \overline{CN} . {RTN} + C. \over...{CN} . \overline{RTN} + E. \overline{SM0} + D + A

To see this, for DA we look at the state labeled by A (s5) and for each branch entering this state, we AND the state label (F, C) for the originating state with the condition for the branch (to get $F. \overline{CN} . {RTN}$ and $C. \overline{CA}$), and then OR them all together to get finally $D_A = F. \overline{CN} . {RTN} + C. \overline{CA}$). Keep in mind the state transition table for the D flip flop.

The output logic is also straightforward to obtain:

RC & = D \\
RCH & = B \\
RAC & = A

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