Fast voxel-based 2D/3D registration algorithm using a rendering method based on the shear-warp factorization

Authors: Jürgen Weese, Roland Göcke, Graeme P. Penney, Paul Desmedt, Thorsten M. Buzug, and Heidrun Schumann

Presented by Jürgen Weese at SPIE's Medical Imaging International Symposium, San Diego, California USA, 20-26 February 1999

In Medical Imaging 1999: Image Processing, K. M. Hanson, ed., Proceedings of SPIE Vol.3661, 1999, pp. 802-810


2D/3D registration makes it possible to use pre-operative CT scans during X-ray fluoroscopy guided interventions for navigation purposes. For this registration task a fast voxel-based method is presented, which uses a recently introduced similarity measure (pattern intensity). This measure is especially suitable for 2D/3D registration, because it is robust with respect to structures as, for instance, a stent visible in the X-ray fluoroscopy image but not in the CT scan. The method uses only a part of the CT scan for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) to accelerate their computation. Nevertheless, computation time is crucial for intra-operative application, because numerous DRRs must be computed. The suitability of different volume rendering methods for 2D/3D registration has been investigated therefore. A method based on the shear-warp factorization turned out to be especially suitable and builds the basis of the registration algorithm. The algorithm has been applied to images of a spine phantom and to clinical images. For comparison, registration results have been calculated using ray-casting. The shear-warp factorization based rendering method accelerates registration by a factor of up to seven compared to ray-casting without degrading registration accuracy. Using a vertebra as a feature for registration, computation time is in the range of 3-4s (Sun UltraSparc, 300MHz) which is acceptable for intra-operative application.

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