In this paper, we argue that the resolution of anaphoric expressions in an utterance is essentially an abductive task following [?] who use a weighted abduction scheme on horn clauses to deal with reference. We give a semantic representation for utterances containing anaphora that enables us to compute possible antecedents by abductive inference. We extend the disjunctive model construction procedure of hyper tableaux [?] with a clause transformation turning the abductive task into a model generation problem and show the completeness of this transformation with respect to the computation of abductive explanations. This abductive inference is applied to the resolution of anaphoric expressions in our general model constructing framework for incremental discourse representation which we argue to be useful for computing information updates from natural language utterances.
In this paper, we show how techniques from first-order theorem proving can be used for efficient deductive database updates. The key idea is to transform the given database, together with the update request, into a (disjunctive) logic program and to apply the hyper tableaux calculus to solve the original update problem. The resulting algorithm has the following properties: it works goal-directed (i.e. the search is driven by the update request), it is rational in the sense that it satisfies certain rationality postulates stemming from philosophical works on belief dynamics, and, unlike comparable approaches, it is of polynomial space complexity.
To obtain soundness and completeness results, the hyper tableau calculus is slightly modified for minimal model reasoning. Besides a direct proof we give an alternate proof which gives insights into the relation to previous approaches. As a by-product we thereby derive a soundness and completeness result of hyper tableaux for computing minimal abductive explanations.
FDPLL is a directly lifted version of the well-known Davis-Putnam-Logeman-Loveland (DPLL) procedure. While DPLL is based on a splitting rule for case analysis wrt. ground and complementary literals, FDPLL uses a lifted splitting rule, i.e. the case analysis is made wrt. non-ground and complementary literals now.
The motivation for this lifting is to bring together successful first-order techniques like unification and subsumption to the propositionally successful DPLL procedure.
At the heart of the method is a new technique to represent first-order interpretations, where a literal specifies truth values for all its ground instances, unless there is a more specific literal specifying opposite truth values. Based on this idea, the FDPLL calculus is developed and proven as strongly complete.
Many key verification problems such as bounded model-checking, circuit verification and logical cryptanalysis are formalized with combined clausal and affine logic (i.e. clauses with xor as the connective) and cannot be efficiently (if at all) solved by using CNF-only provers.
We present a decision procedure to efficiently decide such problems. The Gauss-DPLL procedure is a tight integration in a unifying framework of a Gauss-Elimination procedure (for affine logic) and a Davis-Putnam-Logeman-Loveland procedure (for usual clause logic).
The key idea, which distinguishes our approach from others, is the full interaction bewteen the two parts which makes it possible to maximise (deterministic) simplification rules by passing around newly created unit or binary clauses in either of these parts. We show the correcteness and the termination of Gauss-DPLL under very liberal assumptions.